The article displays globalization’s influence onto philosophy’s transformation. The traditional philosophy systems reflect local or regional humanity’s experience. The modern global society demands of creation such philosophy that would reflect global experience – philosophy of the civilization’s survival. It has to create principals of solving of global processes. The forms of civilization experience, that made possible to solve the problems of survival in local and regional scales, will have to become the base of philosophy of survival.
In the article the author analyzes the concept and stages of economic development, as well as the process of economic technologizing on the material of three cases - Sumerian ideas about the price of the goods, Aristotle's views on wealth and the peculiarities of tea trade in Victorian England. There are two ways of representing the economy: maintaining the life of the social organism and as a special type of technology, providing the development of the economy, which at the same time acts as a source of economic and social crises. The author discusses the conditionality of the economy in the conceptual, cultural, psychological and social relations. The conclusion is that the economy develops, along with ensuring its social and cultural conditions that involve conscious participation of economic and cultural subjects in this process.
The article identifies the social-philosophical roots of neoliberal ideology, which as a project is in a very strong position in today's globalizing world. Classic authors of the neo-liberal approach are Western scholars Karl Popper and Friedrich Hayek, who developed the concept of "open society" ("extended order"), where the reference methodological designs are hard anthropocentrism, evolutionism and market relations. According to theorists of neoliberalism, the meaning of the historical process as a movement from "closed society", support for which was made by the collectivist structure, to the "open society", where relations of exchange based on individual aspirations and initiative are at the forefront. From this follows the introduction of a number of concepts, turning into a neo-liberal ideology – individual freedom, a market. The article shows the limited explanatory possibilities of the theory of Karl Popper and Friedrich Hayek, as well as the abstractness of the mentioned ideologies that often forces neo-liberal leaders to resort to double standards in the course of political practice. However, the strength of neoliberal tenets are not in scientific, but in their class nature that makes them useful as expressions of the interests of leading social groups.
In this article the problem of moral and ethic norms in accounting and auditing professions is discussed on the background of historical cases, described in the Treatise about damage of customs in Russia and publications on Panama swindle. Appealing to the Roman Pope’s Francis I conscription the conclusion on the necessity for fulfillment of the requirements of the Accountant Ethics Code is made.
This article continues explanation of the anthropological approach to development of the world philosophy. Its basic scheme is based on relations between pre-philosophy (naive philosophizing) and professional philosophy, formed and organized in intellectual networks. Two factors drive a person with innate interest to philosophizing (which was defined by Kant as “metaphysica naturalis”) into the intellectual networks: strive for emotional energy and the possibility to intensify philosophizing by putting oneself into a stricter framework of professional communication. “Autonomy of philosophy” is considered as the ideal mode of professional philosophy. It is juxtaposed to the idea of “philosophical life”. The article finishes with a sketch of civilizational factors that force this period in history of the world philosophy, defined as «institutional period», to end.
The paper deals with the practical and theoretical implications that justice becomes a real factor in achieving solidarity in the social life of social actors. The different conceptions of justice, revealed their intrinsic and structural differences. The authors conclude that the outcome of the discussions around the theme of justice, continuing the last thirty years, has become a significant semantic shift in the understanding of justice that resulted, in turn, the emergence of new forms and methods of achieving it. It is noted that justice has properties which do not have the truth, and that helps her to stay in the field of philosophy and social sciences, despite the failure of attempts to give her a satisfactory explanation. This property is a special sensitivity towards her by individuals, as well as social and cultural groups. Levels of justice, it was found that the social structure is the foundation of justice. The authors criticize emotivism asserting the impossibility of rational justification of social values, and contrast it justice concept fleksibelnoy methodological basis of which is the idea of transversal reason.
Modern science transformed our notion of the universe which appears now as an integrated, continuously developing system which is characterized by the interaction of the chance and the law. Philosophical comprehension of the new picture of the world demands essential changes in the worldview of people. Many western Christian theologians suppose that Christianity in this connection also must and may improve its doctrine of the Creator and creation. The author considers the conception elaborated by one of the most prominent specialists on the problem «science and the modern Christianity», an English scientist and an Anglican theologian A. Peacocke, which is directed at solving that problem. He motivates the legitimation of a new vision of God where the Creator appears as dynamic, limited in His power and knowledge, suffering, loving, personally connected with His creation, exploring it and developing with it. Peacocke’s conception enriches not only Christian theology but also our notion of it.
The article explores the role of Russia in the post-Soviet space, the purpose and the results of cooperation with the newly independent countries in 25 years after the liquidation of the Soviet Union. The main task is to analyze the Russian policy towards the countries that emerged from the former Soviet Union, measures aimed at the development of mutually advantageous cooperation, and their outcomes. It is important to develop the further strategy of Russia taking into account all the pitfalls in the interaction of Russia with all the newly independent countries taken together, to understand the reasons why there have been arising some periodical economic, political and cultural contradictions, and sometimes even conflicts. Today, it has become vital in the period of the new world order formation, in the conditions of worsening relations with Ukraine. The article substantiates the reasons for the lack of efficiency of interaction between Russia and CIS countries in the 1990s in the economic and military-political spheres. The author also highlights the historical significance of the efforts to preserve the declared unity of post-Soviet space in the organizational documents. The article shows the changes that have been made in Russia's policy towards the CIS countries since 2000s, the intense integration of regional parts of the countries to jointly emerge from the crisis, the creation of the collective security system of a group of countries of the former Soviet Union, awareness of the need to move towards multi-level cooperation with these countries as they are ready to join in the interests of mutually beneficial cooperation.
DEVELOPMENT OF SOVIET SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY IN THE FIELD OF COMPUTER HARDWARE AND PROGRAMMING (late1940s – mid 1950s)Shilov V.V., Pivovarov N.Yu., Krayneva Irina
This paper deals with the post-war period (late 1940s – mid 1950s) in the development of Soviet digital electronic computational tools and formation of the USSR science and technology policy in this field. The authors studied how well the Soviet scientists and managers were aware of the new aspects of this policy, detected its primary application area – the Soviet Atomic project and considered the conditions of its formation. Evidently, information about the new computational tools came to the Soviet Union from abroad. One of the sources of such information was academic and science and technical journals. Possibly, intelligence agencies played a certain role in obtaining this information. It was then that some contradictions between approaches to computer hardware appeared. On the one hand, leaders of the Atomic project realized its benefits and planned to produce and apply it, though in a limited scope. On the other hand, advocates of the development of computer hardware affiliated with the USSR Academy of Sciences and Ministry for Machine Building and Instrument Making were in favor of a more comprehensive approach, which implied the creation of new types of computers, increasing their capacity and extending prospective applications beyond the military-industrial complex. Participation of the two establishments in the development of computer hardware was highly competitive, with each body pursuing its own goals and lacking resources. The fact that the developments by S.A. Lebedev got ultimately higher priority testifies to the deep insight of the USSR Academy of Sciences into scientific and engineering problems. Ideological pressure, characteristic of the late period of Stalin’s rule with respect to some areas of science, did not have any serious implications for the development of computer hardware. The general situation with electronic computational tools confirms the fact that Soviet engineering in the period of late Stalinism was of the catch-up nature.
The author analyses the student movement in 1960s in the Novosibirsk State University (NGU), the longest open legal student movement of the Soviet period. The previous publications on this subject do not present the movement in its entirety, and they also do not reflect the nature of the phenomenon properly. The civil movement in Akademgorodok (Academic Town) and, in particular, at the NGU was a by-product of the famous Siberian experiment. Nowadays, this by-product is quite topical in search for the best strategy of social change. The article reconstructs and analyses the preconditions and factors of the student movement, as well as the spectrum and directions of its political activities: self-organization and self-management, club activities, participation in the Rector’s elections, protection of student political and academic freedoms, preservation of the autonomy of the university, etc. The conclusions about the nature of the movement are made based on numerous memoirs and available documents.
The article is devoted to the moral and ethical search and God-seeking of a prominent socialist-revolutionary Boris Savinkov. He earned a reputation not only as one of the leaders of the PSR “Fighting organization”, who participated in the organization of the most resonant attacks – on Interior Minister V.K. Pleve and Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, but also as a writer whose works "The Pale Horse" and "That Which Was Not (Three Brothers)" had a great public resonance. The contradictory nature of his personality, attitudes and actions, clearly manifested in the fact that he simultaneously combined leadership of “Fighting organization” and public reflection on moral inadmissibility of the murder, and in the fact that his anti-Bolshevik activities he combined with writing "The Black Horse", still attracts the attention of researchers and journalists. The circumstances of his death also attract the attention. The author explores them using the documents of "Savinkov case," initially stored in the secret archives of the Politburo of the CPSU (b), which allow us to speak with confidence about his suicide.
The article discusses the attitudes of different nations and national cultures to the memory of the Fallen on the battlefield. The author emphasizes the historical, cultural and religious peculiarities of the formation of traditions and customs of honoring and preserving the memory of them. It is concluded that the attitude to the memory of the Fallen demonstrates the level of development of national culture.